Phragmites-Utah’s Grassy Invader

Invasive Phragmites
Phragmites australis
Photo Courtesy
Plant Conservation Alliance
Alien Plant Working Group
As found on
Photographers credited on Factsheet

Invasive Phragmites vs. Native

Photo Courtesy
Plant Conservation Alliance
Alien Plant Working Group
As found on
See guide to distinguish
Invasive from Native plants
Photographers credited on Factsheet

Hi, this is Mark Larese-Casanova from the Utah Master Naturalist Program at Utah State University Extension.

When exploring wetlands, streambanks, and the shores of Great Salt Lake this time of year, it’s common to see tall grasses, over ten feet high, blowing in the breeze. While it is very abundant, the common reed known as Phragmites australis is anything but normal.

Phragmites was introduced from Europe over a century ago, and is now found in all 50 states and on every continent except Antarctica. It can grow to more than 15 feet in height, with long blade-like leaves. It flowers from July to October, producing dense, feathery clusters of small flowers that are purple while flowering and turn light brown after producing seeds. Each stem can produce up to 2,000 wind-dispersed seeds that are particularly effective at colonizing new areas. Because of this, Phragmites can take over a disturbed area quickly and prevent native plants, such as bulrush and cattail, from becoming established.

Like other invasive plants, Phragmites is successful at outcompeting native plants. Once a plant is established from seed, Phragmites spreads quickly through rhizomes, or underground stems, that can produce many additional stalks. While Phragmites may start growing among other wetland plants, it quickly outcompetes them for nutrients and sunlight. However, the native “Phragmites australis subspecies americanus” does not grow nearly as dense or tall, and tends to not be invasive.

Because introduced Phragmites can quickly grow into solid stands, it can greatly reduce plant diversity in wetlands, ultimately reducing the quality of wildlife habitat. Wetlands along the shore of Great Salt Lake are particularly important habitat for many migratory birds species, some of which occur here in the largest populations in North America or the world. The rapid takeover by Phragmites in these wetlands could eventually have dramatic impacts to the entire Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

In order to combat this threat, wetland managers have tried several methods for controlling or removing Phragmites, including spraying with herbicide, burning, livestock grazing, and mowing. Dr. Karin Kettenring, a Utah State University researcher, and her graduate students are currently studying the effects of several of these Phragmites control methods along the shores of Great Salt Lake. By experimenting with the timing of mowing and herbicide treatment, as well as covering mowed Phragmites with heavy black plastic, Dr. Kettenring and her team hope to find the most effective combination of treatments. With the continual conversion of native wetland habitats to a monoculture of Phragmites, Dr. Kettenring’s research is of particular importance to maintaining the health of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem- one of our state’s greatest natural wonders.

For Wild About Utah, I’m Mark Larese-Casanova.

Images: Courtesy & Copyright
            Jil M. Swearingen, National Park Service, Center for Urban Ecology, Washington, DC
            Dr. Kristin Saltonstall, Adjunct Research Scientist, Horn Point Laboratory,
                  University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomon, MD
            Robert Meadows, Environmental Scientist, North DE Wetland Rehabilitation Program,
                  DE Mosquito Control Section, Newark, DE
            As found on
Text:     Mark Larese-Casanova, Utah Master Naturalist Program at Utah State University Extension.

Additional Reading:

Evans K, Martinson W (2008) Utah’s featured birds and viewing sites: a conservation platform for Important Bird Areas and Bird Habitat Conservation Areas. Salt Lake City, Utah

Kulmatiski A, Beard KH, Meyerson LA, Gibson JR, Mock KE (2010) Nonnative Phragmites australis invasion into Utah wetlands. Western North American Naturalist 70:541-552

Long, A.L., C.M.U. Neale, and K.M. Kettenring. 2012. Management of Phragmites in the Great Salt Lake watershed. Final report to the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands. 15 pp.


Copyright © 2002 Roger Banner, Intermountain Herbarium, USU

Hi I’m Holly Strand.

The snow has barely melted yet Dandelions are pushing their way up through the grass. The flowers delight my daughter who eagerly gathers them by the fistful into cheerful but quickly droopy bouquets. However, not everyone shares her enthusiasm. The common dandelion is listed as an invasive and noxious weed by the USDA. Lawnowners spend a lot of time pulling them up and a lot of money on herbicides. There is even a Facebook group called Dandelion Haters United!

The Flora of North America recognizes 15 species of dandelion and four of these occur in Utah. Two native species are found in the mountains. The dandelion that you see in your lawn is an immigrant from Eurasia. If it has olive green seeds it the “Common Dandelion”. If it has brick-red seeds and leaves lobed to the tip it is the so called” Red seeded dandelion. “ This red-seeded dandelion is also common.

The word dandelion comes from the French dent de lion or “lion’s tooth,” referring to the serrated leaves of the plant. The French however, use another name “pissenlit” (pis’seau-li) or bedwetter, referring to the diuretic properties of the plant.

Throughout the ages, people have used dandelions to treat various ailments such as dyspepsia, heartburn, spleen and liver complaints, and hepatitis. Modern pharmacaological studies indicate both dandelion extracts or individual compounds of dandelion leaves or roots really do have significant health-promoting properties. They appear to be especially beneficial for treating digestive disorders, inflammation and as an anti-oxidant.

But the main reason you shouldn’t reach for that pesticide is that dandelions are delicious! The young fresh leaves taste great in a salad, or you can sauté them as you would spinach. You can make dandelion soup or even wine. The greens have 50% more vitamin C than tomatoes, double the protein content of eggplant, and twice the fiber of asparagus. They are also rich in potassium and iron. If harvesting from your yard, just make sure you pick the leaves before the flowers appear.

For information sources and a recipe for dandelion salad go to

For Wild About Utah, I’m Holly Strand.


Photos: Courtesy and Copyright 2002 Roger Banner, Intermountain Herbarium, USU
Text: Holly Strand

Sources & Additional Reading:

Fertig, W. 2011.
Can‘t Beat ‘em? Eat ‘em ! (Sidebar to “Consider the Dandelion Before You Dig”) Sego Lily (newsletter of the Utah native Plant Society. March. Vol. 34, No. 2. P. 8

Lesica, Peter 2011. Consider the Dandelion Before You Dig. Sego Lily (newsletter of the Utah native Plant Society. March. Vol. 34, No. 2. P. 8

Schutz, Katrin, Reinhold Carle, Andreas Schieber Reinhold Carle, Andreas Schieber. 2006. Taraxacum—A review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Vol. 107, pp. 313–323

Dandelions, Range Plants of Utah, Forbs, Mindy Pratt, Jim Bowns, Roger Banner, Allen Rasmussen, USU Extension, 2002,

Dandelion Salad (from


1/2 pound torn dandelion greens

1/2 red onion, chopped

2 tomatoes, chopped

1/2 teaspoon dried basil

salt and pepper to taste


In a medium bowl, toss together dandelion greens, red onion, and tomatoes.

Season with basil, salt, and pepper.

Dyer’s Woad

Dyer’s Woad in blossom
Courtesy of and
Copyright © 2009 Brad Kropp
As found on

In early May, pale yellow carpets some hillsides of Northern Utah. The plants are a non-native known as Dyer’s Woad. This Asian member of the cabbage family has been cultivated as a dye and medicinal plant in Europe and Asia for 2000 years. Dyer’s Woad produces a glorious blue dye, but the process is tricky. No synthetic dye equals the color and characteristics of woad dyes.

Woad had arrived in Utah by 1932 as a seed contaminant. Now it is a noxious weed. Woad has a number of unique abilities that contribute to its vigor. Being a biennial plant, it spends the first year of life as a rosette of leaves, building reserves. In its second year, those reserves allow a woad plant to send forth a tall, lanky stem covered with pale yellow flowers that ultimately yield up to 10,000 seeds per plant.

Although Dyer’s Woad is not toxic, few animals relish it either. The seeds have chemicals that inhibit germination and root elongation in other plants, giving woad a competitive edge. Woad causes millions of dollars in losses each year, so control is a major issue. Herbicides and mechanical removal are best used against the rosettes, but nature has provided a native fungus that views woad as dinner. This rust fungus is very effective at eliminating or severely reducing seed production. Plants infected with the rust fungus are misshapen, wrinkly, and covered in dark spots. Those spots brim with rust spores. Therefore, when removing woad, leave the sickly plants to infect yet more woads.

Dyer’s Woad with rust
Courtesy of and
Copyright © 2009 Brad Kropp
As found on

This is Linda Kervin for Bridgerland Audubon Society.
Photos: Brad Krupp, Utah State University,
Text: Michael Piep, Utah Native Plant Society

Additional Reading:

Intermountain Herbarium:

Washington Weed Board:


Edmonds, J. 2006. The History of Woad and the Medieval Woad Vat.

Shaw, R.J. 1989. Vascular Plants of Northern Utah. Utah State University Press, Logan, Utah.

Welsh, S.L., N D. Atwood, S Goodrich & L.C. Higgins. 2008. A Utah Flora, 4th Ed. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.