Lawn Reduction

Lawn Reduction: Riding Lawnmower Courtesy & Copyright Ron Hellstern, Photographer
Riding Lawnmower
Courtesy & Copyright Ron Hellstern, Photographer
Traditional American landscaping focuses on maintaining a manicured green lawn. However, the National Wildlife Federation has some better environmental choices for people and wildlife by including native trees, shrubs, ground cover, prairie or meadow patches, flower beds and attractively mulched areas.
Did you know

  • Approximately 20 million U.S. acres are now planted as residential lawn.
  • 30-60% of urban freshwater is used for watering lawns.
  • 67 million pounds of synthetic pesticides are used on U.S. lawns annually.
  • Areas of lawn that include only one type of plant, such as grass, offer very little habitat value for wildlife.
  • Yard waste, mostly grass clippings, makes up 20% of municipal solid waste collected, and most of it ends up in landfills.
  • Reasons to reduce your lawn
  • Save time and money that you would normally spend on mowing and fertilizing grass.
  • Provide habitat and food for wildlife.
  • Conserve water.
  • Reduce lawn mower pollution and decrease run-off from fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Here are some ways to reduce your lawn and help wildlife
  • Use native plant species as ground cover instead of grass.
  • Install native trees and shrubs
  • Create a rock garden
  • Use mulched pathways
  • Provide meadow or prairie patches
  • Install a hedgerow
  • Plant an organic vegetable garden
  • Create a butterfly or hummingbird garden
  • Taking Action
    Make a plan of how you want your yard to look. Check with your local municipality, neighborhood, or homeowners’ association for regulations. Once you have decided on an area of your yard to convert, follow these simple suggestions:
  • Cover your turf grass with 6-10 layers of black & white newspaper or brown cardboard. There is no need to remove the grass first.
  • Make sure the sections overlap one another so that grass and weeds will not come up between the cracks.
  • Wet down the newspaper or cardboard.
  • Cover the newspaper or cardboard with a 4”- 6” layer of mulch or soil.
  • Allow turf grass and weeds to die back for 4-6 weeks.
  • Plant directly through the mulch and newspaper/cardboard. If you know you’re going to be planting trees or shrubs, dig the holes before putting down layers of paper.
  • Some other things to consider
  • Determine what native plants are already thriving in your site. Encourage the native plants already present and replace exotic invasive species with native ones. The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center has lists of recommended native plants by region and state at www.wildflower.org/collections. There are 158 listed for Utah.
  • Organic mulch can reduce weeds, prevent erosion, improve soil nutrients and increase water holding capacity.
  • Borders of rock or weed can bring a sense of order to a “wild garden” in an urban or suburban neighborhood. This may make your natural landscape more acceptable to neighbors.
  • And don’t forget to make a place for people as well. A bench or path will accommodate this nicely and add to your enjoyment.
  • This is Ron Hellstern, and I am Wild About Utah.
     
    Credits:

    Images: Courtesy & Copyright
    Audio: Courtesy & Copyright Kevin Colver
    Text: Ron Hellstern, Cache Valley Wildlife Association

    Additional Reading

    Lawn Reduction, The National Wildlife Federation, https://www.nwf.org/-/media/PDFs/Garden-for-Wildlife/Gardening-Tips/Lawn-Reduction_web.ashx?la=en&hash=FAC102D0BDBBC0CCD97ECE01BB9A8E2F91E7C150

    Hadden, Evelyn J, Less Lawn, more life, LessLawn.com, http://www.lesslawn.com/

    Plant Lists & Collections, Recommended Species by State, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, www.wildflower.org/collections

    Silent Spring Revisited

    Silent Spring  First Edition Cover Copyright Houghton Mifflin, Publisher.   Note, rights exist for the designer/illustrators Lois Darling & Louis Darling Courtesy Wikimedia and Abe books.
    Silent Spring
    First Edition Cover
    Copyright Houghton Mifflin, Publisher.
    Note, rights exist for the designer/illustrators Lois Darling & Louis Darling
    Courtesy Wikimedia and Abe books.
    We can be part of the problem, or part of the solution. It is a marvel at how some people have an “ I don’t care” attitude when it comes to the outdoors and the natural world. Whether a person believes that God created the world, it happened via evolution, or never really think about it at all, our lives are directly connected to the natural processes of this planet.

    For those who live in the somewhat hectic world of urban employment and the frantic rush of crowded traffic lanes, it may seem that there may never be a moment where they can relax and enjoy the quiet sounds of nature, whether it be the ripples of a stream, the calls of a songbird, or the breeze rustling through trees. We can become so disconnected from nature that its very existence may seem like a foreign land to us as we are absorbed by work, television, transportation, and household bills.

    Then again, you might be the type to schedule an occasional escape to a national park or forest. Or perhaps you will be content simply to bid farewell to Winter and welcome the warmth of Spring, the sounds of songbirds claiming territories and seeking mates, or watching gorgeous butterflies drifting among floral bouquets. But what if some of those natural sights and sounds we seek are no longer there?

    In 1962, Rachel Carson published her book, Silent Spring. Think about that title: Silent Spring. What would it be like to walk outside and never hear the songs of birds or the humming of pollinating honeybees?
    Carson was concerned about the harmful effects of pesticides on the environment, especially those being sprayed to control insects on large scales. She was concerned about the near constant presence of such chemicals in our foods and suggested that these products are cancer-causing. And, in certain cases, many insects were developing resistance to new pesticides. Her recommendations were that people use biological controls whenever possible by using natural predators, such as ladybird beetles to attack aphids, rather than spraying for them.

    Humans have developed powers to change our environment in wonderful, or drastic, ways. We need to remember that whether we think about it or not, we are connected to the “natural” systems that support human life.

    So let’s consider a few ways that we can help ourselves by helping those natural systems.

      First:
      Protect your soil. Be careful about chemical additives and fertilizers.
      Second:
      Be prudent about your use of water. It is essential to all life, and we don’t have an unlimited supply.
      Third:
      Reevaluate your affinity for lawns. Their value in the West is overrated. Consider planting more native flower gardens that will feed the pollinators which help provide our food sources.
      Fourth:
      Plant trees. They provide shade, purify the air, provide housing for birds, and raise our property values.
      Fifth:
      Help wildlife. Plant milkweed for declining Monarch Butterflies, place birdfeeders in your yards, and provide a water source for birds and butterflies.

      We can be part of the problems, or part of the solutions.

      This is Ron Hellstern, and I am Wild About Utah.
       
      Credits:

      Images: Courtesy & Copyright Houghton Mifflin, Lois Darling and Louis Darling, Illustrators
      Audio: Courtesy & Copyright Friend Weller, UPR.org
      Text: Ron Hellstern, Cache Valley Wildlife Association

      Additional Reading

      Silent Spring, RachelCarlson.org (a memorial site, see Linda Lear), http://www.rachelcarson.org/SilentSpring.aspx

      Silent Spring First Edition Hardback on Amazon, Rachel Carson, Houghton Mifflin, 1962 https://www.amazon.com/Silent-Spring-Rachel-Carson/dp/0395075068

      Silent Spring Anniversary Edition, Rachel Carson (Author), Linda Lear (Introduction), Edward O. Wilson (Afterword), Houghton Mifflin, 2002, https://www.amazon.com/Silent-Spring-Rachel-Carson/dp/0618249060

      Silent Spring First Edition, Abe Books, https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=22902965763

      Wilson, Joseph F, Messinger Carril, Olivia J., The Bees in Your BackYard, Princeton University Press, 2015, https://www.amazon.com/dp/0691160775/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_ep_dp_oRgkCbAF08452
      Bees on a Sunflower, from The Bees in Your BackYard, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0RGx70zNHA&feature=youtu.be

      Q & A with Joseph S. Wilson & Olivia J. Messinger Carril, Princeton University Press, https://press.princeton.edu/interviews/qa-10593

      Wilson, Joseph S.; Forister, Matthew L.; and Carril, Olivia Messinger, “Interest Exceeds Understanding in Public Support of Bee Conservation” (2017). Biology Faculty Publications. Paper 1570. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2520&context=biology_facpub

    Seventh Generation

    Seventh Generation: Pando, the worlds largest known organism at Fishlake in central Utah Image courtesy USDA Forest Service J Zapell, Photographer
    Pando, the worlds largest known organism at Fishlake in central Utah
    Image courtesy USDA Forest Service
    J Zapell, Photographer
    There are some people who think that trees are merely green things that stand in their way. And there are some people who believe that life should be lived to its fullest without regards to future generations, or even their neighbors. They are mostly concerned with the Rule of Threes, which basically means a person can survive for 3 minutes without oxygen, 3 hours without shelter in a harsh environment, 3 days without water, and 3 weeks without food. They take care of their own needs.

    But consider the words of a philosophy generally attributed to the Native American Iroquois Confederacy dated around 1500 AD: That decisions we make regarding resources today should result in a sustainable world seven generations into the future. If you prefer, you can consider how the modern United Nations describes sustainable development which is: “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

    Here is a short list of 12 things you can do to help protect our resources for the future:

      1. Conserve energy inside your home in winter by turning down the heat and dressing warmer indoors. In summer, close the window blinds facing direct sunlight. (Utah Clean Energy)
      2. Walk wherever possible for good health and saving fuels. ()
      3. Last year Americans used 50 billion plastic water bottles. Fill reusable water bottles at home and take it with you. Most of the bottled water today is filtered tap water. (Mathematics for Sustainability: Fall 2017)
      4. Turn off the lights in unoccupied rooms. That means in your homes, schools, churches and work places. (When to Turn Off Your Lights (US Dept of Energy))
      5. Try using things more than once. Padded envelopes are just one example. (US EPA: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle)
      6. Reduce landfill waste. The average American uses 350 bags each year. Instead of plastic or paper, use strong canvas or cloth bags which can be reused for many years. (15 Easy Ways To Reduce Landfill Waste)
      7. Contact the companies that send junk mail to your home and discontinue those mailings. Or you’ll have extra papers to recycle…with your name and address on them. (National Do Not Mail List)
      8. If your community doesn’t recycle, find local retailers who will take used oil, batteries, ink cartridges, and light bulbs. Don’t throw them into the trash. (Logan City Recycling)
      9. Plant trees wherever you can. They help wildlife, help purify the air, protect the soil, and provide shade in hot summer months. (Everyone Can Plant a Tree and Help Fight Climate Change (Arbor Day Foundation))
      10. Plant nectar gardens for our declining species of butterflies and bees. Their health and success directly affects our food supplies. (5 Spring Plants That Could Save Monarch Butterflies)
      11. Never throw waste products into our streams, rivers, lakes or oceans. (Utah Clean Water Partnership)
      12. Learn how to compost your food waste into usable soils for the future. (USU Extension Hosting)

    This is Ron Hellstern, and I am Wild About Utah.
     
    Credits:

    Images: Courtesy USDA Forest Service J Zapell, Photographer
    Audio: Contains audio Courtesy & Copyright Friend Weller, Utah Public Radio
    Text:    Ron Hellstern, Cache Valley Wildlife Association
    Included Links: Lyle Bingham, Webmaster, WildAboutUtah.org

    Additional Reading

    6 Ways You Can Help Keep Our Water Clean (Natural Resources Defense Council)

    30 Practical Ways To Cut Fuel And Energy Use And Allow The Natural Environment To Grow Again

    Ron Describes Exotic Invasive Species

    Ron Describes Exotic Invasive Species: Teaching About Invasive Species Used by permission, Tim Grant, editor & publisher
    Teaching About Invasive Species
    Used by permission,
    Tim Grant, editor & publisher

    Exotic invasive species. “Exotic”, sounds rather alluring, but “invasive” implies something completely different and undesirable.

    Basically, we are referring to any species that is not native to that ecosystem, it can survive and reproduce there, and by its introduction can cause harm to the environment, the economy, wildlife, and human health. And this doesn’t mean just plants. There are also invasive animals and even microorganisms that can disrupt the balance that maintains natural ecosystems.

    They usually have some means of dominance over native species, such as superior reproduction or faster growth success. They may also have unique forms of defense against native predators. Being newly introduced to an area, they may not even have any competition from similar species, or natural predators may not exist in their new area at all. Their advantages can outcompete native species at alarming rates and result in a reduction, or elimination, of biodiversity in huge areas. And research has proven that having a diversity of native life forms improves the health of ecosystems.

    Organizations dealing with agriculture, forestry, fisheries, wildlife and waterways estimate that the annual costs to try to control invasive species in our country exceeds $120 billion dollars. And, whether you are a supporter of the Endangered Species Act or not, a quote from the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service states “More than 400 of the over 1,300 species currently protected under the Endangered Species Act,…..are considered to be at risk at least partly due to displacement by, competition with, and predation by invasive species.”

    In Utah, there are 596 invasive plant species, 28 invasive insects, and a few mammals too. I’ll simply mention a few and why they are so problematic: In the water we are plagued with Quagga and Zebra Mussels, Carp , and plants like Purple Loosestrife. One adult Zebra Mussel can produce one million larvae that mature in one year.

    Africanized Honeybees have been sneaking into our State, and they can be very aggressive.
    Some of the more common invasive plants include: Russian Olive, Field bindweed, Dyer’s Woad, Russian and Canada thistle, Stinging Nettle, Tamarisk, …..even Kentucky Bluegrass is on the list. The yellow Dyer’s Woad plant that covers many of our hillside grazing lands, is prolific and may produce 10,000 seeds per plant

    The European Starling and English House Sparrow are two birds that don’t belong here, but have been extremely successful by inhabiting all 50 States and occupy nesting sites and deplete food sources of our native American songbirds.

    Mammals include the Red Fox, Muskrat, White-tailed Deer (which might excite some hunters), and the adorable Raccoon which may be one of the best examples of the problems invasive species can cause. Raccoons can damage homes, fruit trees, and gardens, kill chickens, cats, migratory birds, pheasants, ducks, quail and grouse. They can also spread disease to other mammals as they eat out of garbage cans, carry fleas, ticks, lice, distemper, mange, and blood tests have shown that 80% of them have been exposed to rabies as indicated by the presence of a rabies titer.

    For more information, search online for the topic of interest, plus Utah State University. Or get the book “Teaching About Invasive Species” edited by Tim Grant.

    This is Ron Hellstern, and I am Wild About Utah.
     
    Credits:

    Images: Courtesy & Copyright Tim Grant, GreenTeacher.com
    Audio: Courtesy & Copyright Friend Weller, UPR.org
    Text: Ron Hellstern, Cache Valley Wildlife Association

    Additional Reading

    Leavitt, Shauna, The Invasive Phragmites, https://wildaboututah.org/invasive-phragmites/