SNOTEL Snowpack Recording Stations

Manual Snow Measurement
Cover image from
Snow surveying by James C. Marr
USDA 1940 Publication 380
Public Domain
Courtesy UVA, Google & HathiTrust

For a modern view visit
http://www.meted.ucar.edu/afwa
/avalanche/print.htm

Removing snow surveying apparatus
from canvas carrying case
preparatory to use
From
Snow surveying by James C. Marr
USDA 1940 Publication 380
Public Domain
Courtesy UVA, Google & HathiTrust

Water is a precious resource throughout the world. Most of Utah consists of arid habitats and many users clamor for their share of the scarce moisture. Ever-growing demand challenges water managers to insure that agriculture, cities and nature all get their portion. Predicting and monitoring stream flow is imperative in order to know how much to hold in reservoirs or send downstream, and when to anticipate floods, enact water conservation measures, and in general provide for all users.

Much of Utah’s water originates in the mountain snowpack. Early in the twentieth century, the Department of Agriculture constructed a series of Snow Courses in mountainous areas of the West. Hardy personnel periodically trekked in to measure snow depth with a long ruled stick. Water content was found by taking a core sample, weighing it and subtracting out the weight of the metal tube. Stream gauging stations installed by the US Geological Survey allowed correlation of stream flows with snowpack measures.

In the 1970’s, monitoring snow courses became more automated. The reporting stations were named “SNOTEL” for snowpack telemetry. Now there are over 600 SNOTEL sites in 13 western states. The measurement functions of SNOTEL stations are elegantly simple and reliable. Air and soil temperatures are monitored with standard thermocouples. Water content of the snowpack is measured by its weight atop a broad thin bladder called a snow pillow that is filled with antifreeze. The snow pillow is carefully spread on the ground. Accumulating snow presses down on the pillow, pushing some antifreeze out a connecting tube to a pressure sensor.

Some SNOTEL sites also measure snow depth, using the autofocus technology of the digital camera. Subject distance is gauged by the time delay of an ultrasonic pulse, like sonar or hearing your voice echo back in a canyon. At a SNOTEL station, a similar sensor is placed high above the expected snow line. As snow accumulates, the downward facing sensor reports the shortening distance between it and the snow surface.

SNOTEL stations have batteries and a solar panel to power their hourly data transmissions. Ogden has one of the two master receiving stations. Want to size up mountain snowfall from the last storm or know how warmly to dress for an outing? Just go to Utah’s SNOTEL information site on the web.

Credits:

Image: Public Domain, Courtesy University of Virginia, Google and HathiTrust, Cover image from Snow surveying by James C. Marr, USDA 1940 Publication 380

Text: Jim Cane & Linda Kervin, Bridgerland Audubon Society http://www.bridgerlandaudubon.org

Additional Reading:

Water Conservation Begins with Snow Surveys, USDA NRCS, http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/factpub/wc_ss.html

Snow Hydrology: SNOTEL, Randall Julander, Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Utah, http://www.civil.utah.edu/~cv5450/snotel/snotel.htm

Utah Snow Survey Program, USDA NRCS, http://www.ut.nrcs.usda.gov/snow/

NRCS Snow Surveyor Collects Vital Water Data, Lives Dream Job, Spencer Miller, NRCS, Jan 10, 2013, http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/home/?cid=STELPRDB1076993

Snow Surveys and Water Supply Forecasting, National Atlas of the United States, US Department of the Interior, http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/climate/a_snow.html

Map, Utah USGS SNOTEL Stations http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/snotel/Utah/utah.html

Snowflakes

A free-falling snow crystal
photographed as it fell
Alta Ski Area on March 6, 2011
Photo Courtesy & Copyright 2011
Tim Garrett, University of Utah
Alta Snowflake Showcase

As winter draws to a close, I’d like to take a moment to reflect on the amazing weather phenomenon that is a snowflake. When winter weather dumps inches of snow on us, it’s easy to overlook the tiny works of art, those intricate and delicate snowflakes, which make up the storm.

Snowflakes – or to use a more scientific term, snow crystals – come in a variety of different shapes including long, thin needles, flat hexagonal plates, columns, and irregularly-shaped pellets called graupel. The International Snow Classification System recognizes ten different shapes in all, only one of which is the traditional snowflake image. The classic six-armed snowflake shape is called a ‘stellar dendrite’ by scientists.

When teaching programs about snow, someone inevitably asks me, “Is it really true that no two snowflakes are alike?” As far as I can tell, the answer is, well, ‘maybe’, and here’s why.

A free-falling snow crystal
photographed as it fell
Alta Ski Area
March 6, 2011
Photo Courtesy & Copyright 2011
Tim Garrett, University of Utah
Alta Snowflake Showcase

Three things are needed to form these intricate crystals, and the first two are fairly obvious: water, and temperatures below freezing. The third item is a little more inconspicuous. Water cannot condense and freeze all on its own. Every snowflake needs a piece of atmospheric dust or salt at its core. This particle is referred to as a ‘nucleating agent,’ and it attracts water molecules which then condense and begin to freeze. From there, a snowflake’s overall shape is determined by a number of other variables including the atmospheric temperature, the amount of available moisture, wind speed, and mid-air collisions with other snowflakes.

To add more complexity, consider that each individual snowflake contains somewhere on the order of 10 quintillion water molecules. That’s ten with eighteen zeros behind it. While the way these molecules bind to each other is dictated by the laws of physics, the sheer number of ways in which 10 quintillion water molecules can arrange themselves as they freeze into place is mind boggling. But then again, how many snowflakes do you think fall in the typical March snowstorm in Utah? A lot. One scientist has estimated that the number of individual snowflakes that have fallen on Earth in the planet’s history is ten with 34 zeros behind it. In all of those snowflakes is it possible that two are exactly alike? Yeah, maybe… but good luck finding them!

A stellar dendrite snow crystal Photo Courtesy & Copyright
Kenneth Libbrecht, Caltech University
SnowCrystals.com

For more information and some beautiful snowflake photographs, please visit our website at www.wildaboututah.org. Thank you to the Rocky Mountain Power Foundation for supporting the research and development of this Wild About Utah topic.

For the Stokes Nature Center and Wild About Utah, this is Andrea Liberatore.

Credits:

Photos: Courtesy Tim Garrett, University of Utah,
Kenneth Libbrecht, Caltech University
Text: Andrea Liberatore, Stokes Nature Center

Additional Reading:

Halfpenny, J.C and Ozanne, R.D. 1989. Winter: An Ecological Handbook. Boulder, CO: Johnson Books, http://www.amazon.com/Winter-Ecological-Handbook-James-Halfpenny/dp/1555660363

A stellar dendrite snow crystal Photo Courtesy & Copyright
Kenneth Libbrecht, Caltech University
SnowCrystals.com

Gosnell, Mariana. 2007. Ice: the Nature, the History, and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, http://www.amazon.com/Ice-Nature-History-Astonishing-Substance/dp/0679426086

Libbrecht, Kenneth .1999. A Snowflake Primer: the basic facts about snowflakes and snow crystals. http://www.its.caltech.edu/~atomic/snowcrystals/primer
/primer.htm

 

 

 

A hexagonal plate snow crystal cite>Photo Courtesy & Copyright
Kenneth Libbrecht, Caltech University
SnowCrystals.com

Graupel Snow

Graupel Snow
Image Courtesy & Copyright Jim Cane

Snow graces the winter sky in many different forms. We have large lazy flakes drifting down, sharp needles driven by harsh winds and thick curtains that swiftly blanket the landscape. Late winter storms offer good chances to observe one of our more unusual and distinctive kinds of snowfall; “graupel”. Graupel – that sounds like some kind of respiratory malady, doesn’t it? Also known as soft hail or tapioca snow, graupel consists of tender round snow pellets no bigger than a pea. The name comes from the German word for hulled grain, “graupe”.

Graupel accompanies warmer winter storms, the kind we often have in March, as well as during summer showers high in the mountains. The pellets form when snow crystals fall through a low cloud of super-cooled liquid droplets. The foggy droplets readily coalesce and freeze around the falling ice crystals, accumulating to form soft graupel pellets. The process is somewhat akin to making rock candy from a concentrated hot sugar syrup, or the method used to generate artificial snow. In contrast, sleet forms when raindrops fall through a cold air layer and freeze.

Our big snowfalls are spawned by storms that generate sprawling unbroken cloud decks. Graupel snow, on the other hand, tumbles down from the bellies of fluffy cumulus clouds. As a consequence, squalls of graupel are brief, the pellets accumulating in a thin white bumpy layer, hence the other common name, “tapioca snow”. A buried layer of tapioca snow is prone to avalanche for the first day or two, after which the pellets anneal and stabilize. Any connoisseur of Utah snow should have graupel in their lexicon of wintry terminology, at the ready to impress any Sun Belt visitor met on the slopes.

This is Linda Kervin for Bridgerland Audubon Society.
Credits:

Photos: Courtesy & Copyright Jim Cane

Text: Jim Cane & Linda Kervin, Bridgerland Audubon Society
Additional Reading:

Riehl, Herbert: Introduction to the Atmosphere, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972 http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Atmosphere-Herbert-Riehl/dp/0070526567

Rime and Graupel http://emu.arsusda.gov/snowsite/rimegraupel/rg.html

American Meteorological Society, Glossary of Meteorology http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=graupel1

Graupel – What is Graupel? http://weather.about.com/od/g/g/graupel.htm

Colorado vs. Utah Snow

Utah snow in author's backyard: relatively light and dry--and definitely deep, Photo Copyright 2010 Holly Strand
Utah snow in author’s backyard:
relatively light and dry
–and definitely deep.
Copyright © 2010 Holly Strand

Hi I’m Holly Strand.

Growing up in Colorado, it never crossed my mind that the snow might be better somewhere else. I believed that my state was the center of the universe– at least as far as snow and skiing were concerned. A couple of decades passed and now I am a Utah resident. I couldn’t help but notice that snow quality here is well beyond satisfactory. And many Utah license plates claim the Greatest Snow on Earth. So, I wondered… Who has better snow? Colorado or Utah?

People usually assume that “great snow” means voluminous and powdery. So let’s compare the 2 states using measures of snow depth for volume and measures of water content for powder.

As far as snow depth, Alta takes the cake and wins mega points for Utah. According to data collected by ski area avalanche professionals, Alta’s average annual snowfall from Nov 1-Apr 30 is 530 inches. That’s 44 feet of snow ! A few other Utah resorts,–plus Colorado’s Wolf Creek Pass–come next with 400 + inches. After that, you get several 300+ inches resorts in both states. More in Colorado, but that’s just because there are more resorts in general. Colorado also has a bunch of areas with 200+ inches. But the point is that a handful of super-snowy resorts lead the pack and most of them are in Utah.

Next I located National Weather Service data for the average water content of freshly fallen snow. The lower the value, the drier the snow. It turns out that the mean water content of new snow decreases as you move eastward from the Pacific Coast to the Rockies. You get values around 12 % water content for the Sierras. This is the infamous Sierra Cement. Intermountain (including the Wasatch Mountains) values hover around 8.5%. The mean water content value for Central Rocky Mountain stations was close to 7%. So in general, Colorado has less watery snow. Of course there are localized anomalies in each state. But overall, Colorado appears to edge out Utah for light, dry, and fluffy snow.

So who has the best snow overall? Well, I guess I still haven’t solved that issue. Best to discuss it further after an exhilarating day on the slopes. Let us know what you think: Send us an email at wildaboututah@gmail.org

For data sources and archives of past Wild About Utah episodes visit www.wildaboututah.org

For Wild About Utah, I’m Holly Strand.

Credits:

Photos: Courtesy and Copyright 2010 Holly Strand

Text: Holly Strand

Sources & Additional Reading:

Armstrong, R.L. and B.R. Armstrong. 1987. Snow and avalancheclimates of the western United States: a comparison of maritime, intermountain and continental conditions. IAHS Publ. 162
(Symposium at Davos 1986 – Avalanche Formation, Movement and Effects), 281–294

Baxter, M.A., C.E. Graves, and J.T. Moore, 2005: A Climatology of Snow to Liquid Ratio for the Contiguous United States, Weather and Forecasting, 20, 729-744.

Crocker, Tony. BESTSNOW.NET – an independent statistical analysis of snow characteristics (based on data collected by ski area avalanche professionals) at major North American ski resorts. http://webpages.charter.net/tcrocker818/ [accessed December 14, 2010]

Steenburgh, W. J., and T. I. Alcott, 2008. Secrets of the “Greatest Snow on Earth.” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 1285-1293.